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It is an all-time classic now, but it was definitely a niche show, and that is the point of this post. Joker does not equal Fool. Well howdy! I have a Texas accent today because we are's about uhxploar gamblin! The Joker, in modern playing card decks is often thought to be a direct descendant of the Fool. This myth is so pervasive that many pseudo-scholars have lined up in a parade to pass on this misinformation. Well, they are wrong and should be made to eat poo for banging the drum and spreading so many lies that now the general tarot reading public simply assumes it is true "because it s.

What is a spread and why do you use one? A spread is an organizational chart for cards. The cards tell the story, but the spread marks the plot points the juicy parts. Let's say you are doing a one-card reading. This means you ask a question and pull "one card. I see too many people relying on them however and then they ask what it means. What it means is that they. A different way to learn the tarot.

Hey kids, So I have been following something new and as much as I believe in my own style of teaching and thank all of your for allowing me to help you learn the tarot, I have come across a wonderful lady who teaches tarot through video. All it all it is very affordable, being about ten dollars an hour she just raised her price last week, but only by eight dollars US so that is not a big deal. I could listen to her all day.

I love her voice and she is genuinely helpf. Easy Tarot Lessons: Lesson one-- start here. Staring at a spread that won't give you solid answers is frustrating. They delight in making you feel incompetent. When you are facing down a spread that refuses to cooperate you might be tempted to wonder if you shuffled enough or "did it right. What to do if you "just don't connect with a Tarot deck". I recently saw a post on a metaphysical social networking site. A beginner at the Tarot was having problems connecting with the Rider Waite and don;t we all at first. She posted her problem asking what to do.

She was immediately greeted with suggestions that she simply buy more decks and ignore the ones that she did not understand immediately. My head almost exploded. While I am all for mindless consumerism and the collection of divination decks, and other oracles, I. Beltane is coming! But first we have Imbolg!

Check your calendars. On or around feb 7th it will be 15 degrees Aquarius. The "Fixed," or middle dead-center of Winter. It's check-up time. Every 8. Are things going well? How are those New Year's resolutions you hopefully made at Yule going? We have one more week to cram before the big test. Are you moving in the direction you like? This year started with Merc. Always remember this and you will "win! We are only trapped by our prejudices things we refuse to change and our luxuries things we are afraid to lose.

Just a random thoughtooh pop-tars! Be sure to stop into www. Why is the tarot so Hey everybody! I just was asked to guest blog over at tarotwisdom. What's wrong with suits? Baby Steps. The first lesson of the new year comes just before the old year ends--which is right now. Baby steps.


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Learn to love 'em. The short version is that things WILL be screwy at first. Small steps can be retraced, can be corrected almost without thought. But trouble is lurking for the fool who leaps too far out, too early. The new year will being new skills, and they will take. All that matters is that YOU will be able to work miracles. Show More. All Episodes. Please remember to subscribe on iTunes just click here Share. Mark as Played. Popular Podcasts. Each episode has a different theme in which Ron engages in conversation with another notable person on the topic at hand.

In conversation on this subject as I recall it , I asked Pickering about certain other faint stars, not on my list, mentioning in particular 40 Eridani B.

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Characteristically, he sent a note to the Observatory office and before long the answer came I think from Mrs Fleming that the spectrum of this star was A. I knew enough about it, even in these paleozoic days, to realize at once that there was an extreme inconsistency between what we would then have called "possible" values of the surface brightness and density. I must have shown that I was not only puzzled but crestfallen, at this exception to what looked like a very pretty rule of stellar characteristics; but Pickering smiled upon me, and said: "It is just these exceptions that lead to an advance in our knowledge", and so the white dwarfs entered the realm of study!

The spectral type of 40 Eridani B was officially described in by Walter Adams. The white dwarf companion of Sirius , Sirius B, was next to be discovered.


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During the nineteenth century, positional measurements of some stars became precise enough to measure small changes in their location. In he predicted that both stars had unseen companions: [13]. If we were to regard Sirius and Procyon as double stars, the change of their motions would not surprise us; we should acknowledge them as necessary, and have only to investigate their amount by observation. But light is no real property of mass.

The existence of numberless visible stars can prove nothing against the existence of numberless invisible ones. Bessel roughly estimated the period of the companion of Sirius to be about half a century; [13] C. Peters computed an orbit for it in Willem Luyten appears to have been the first to use the term white dwarf when he examined this class of stars in ; [11] [17] [18] [19] [20] the term was later popularized by Arthur Stanley Eddington. By , over a hundred were known, [22] and by , over 2, were known.

Although white dwarfs are known with estimated masses as low as 0. White dwarfs are composed of one of the densest forms of matter known, surpassed only by other compact stars such as neutron stars , quark stars hypothetically , [28] and black holes. White dwarfs were found to be extremely dense soon after their discovery. If a star is in a binary system, as is the case for Sirius B or 40 Eridani B, it is possible to estimate its mass from observations of the binary orbit.

This was done for Sirius B by , [29] yielding a mass estimate of 0. If the star's distance is known, its absolute luminosity can also be estimated. From the absolute luminosity and distance, the star's surface area and its radius can be calculated. We learn about the stars by receiving and interpreting the messages which their light brings to us. The message of the Companion of Sirius when it was decoded ran: "I am composed of material 3, times denser than anything you have ever come across; a ton of my material would be a little nugget that you could put in a matchbox.

The reply which most of us made in was—"Shut up. Don't talk nonsense. As Eddington pointed out in , densities of this order implied that, according to the theory of general relativity , the light from Sirius B should be gravitationally redshifted. Such densities are possible because white dwarf material is not composed of atoms joined by chemical bonds , but rather consists of a plasma of unbound nuclei and electrons.

There is therefore no obstacle to placing nuclei closer than normally allowed by electron orbitals limited by normal matter. Fowler in by an application of the newly devised quantum mechanics. Since electrons obey the Pauli exclusion principle , no two electrons can occupy the same state , and they must obey Fermi—Dirac statistics , also introduced in to determine the statistical distribution of particles which satisfy the Pauli exclusion principle.

This state of the electrons, called degenerate , meant that a white dwarf could cool to zero temperature and still possess high energy. Compression of a white dwarf will increase the number of electrons in a given volume. Applying the Pauli exclusion principle, this will increase the kinetic energy of the electrons, thereby increasing the pressure. The pressure depends only on density and not on temperature.

Degenerate matter is relatively compressible; this means that the density of a high-mass white dwarf is much greater than that of a low-mass white dwarf and that the radius of a white dwarf decreases as its mass increases. The existence of a limiting mass that no white dwarf can exceed without collapsing to a neutron star is another consequence of being supported by electron degeneracy pressure.

Such limiting masses were calculated for cases of an idealized, constant density star in by Wilhelm Anderson [40] and in by Edmund C. Near the beginning of the 20th century, there was reason to believe that stars were composed chiefly of heavy elements, [41] , p. Together with William Alfred Fowler , Chandrasekhar received the Nobel prize for this and other work in If a white dwarf were to exceed the Chandrasekhar limit, and nuclear reactions did not take place, the pressure exerted by electrons would no longer be able to balance the force of gravity , and it would collapse into a denser object called a neutron star.

New research indicates that many white dwarfs—at least in certain types of galaxies—may not approach that limit by way of accretion. It has been postulated that at least some of the white dwarfs that become supernovae attain the necessary mass by colliding with one another. It may be that in elliptical galaxies such collisions are the major source of supernovae. This hypothesis is based on the fact that the X-rays produced by those galaxies are 30 to 50 times less than what is expected to be produced by type Ia supernovas of that galaxy as matter accretes on the white dwarf from its encircling companion.

It has been concluded that no more than 5 percent of the supernovae in such galaxies could be created by the process of accretion onto white dwarfs. The significance of this finding is that there could be two types of supernovae, which could mean that the Chandrasekhar limit might not always apply in determining when a white dwarf goes supernova, given that two colliding white dwarfs could have a range of masses. This in turn would confuse efforts to use exploding white dwarfs as standard candles in determining distances.

White dwarfs have low luminosity and therefore occupy a strip at the bottom of the Hertzsprung—Russell diagram , a graph of stellar luminosity versus color or temperature. They should not be confused with low-luminosity objects at the low-mass end of the main sequence , such as the hydrogen-fusing red dwarfs , whose cores are supported in part by thermal pressure, [48] or the even lower-temperature brown dwarfs. The relationship between the mass and radius of white dwarfs can be derived using an energy minimization argument.

The energy of the white dwarf can be approximated by taking it to be the sum of its gravitational potential energy and kinetic energy. At this point, the kinetic and gravitational potential energies should be comparable, so we may derive a rough mass-radius relationship by equating their magnitudes:.

Solving this for the radius, R , gives [38]. Dropping N , which depends only on the composition of the white dwarf, and the universal constants leaves us with a relationship between mass and radius:. With this substitution, we find. If we equate this to the magnitude of E g , we find that R drops out and the mass, M , is forced to be [38].

To interpret this result, observe that as we add mass to a white dwarf, its radius will decrease, so, by the uncertainty principle, the momentum, and hence the velocity, of its electrons will increase. Therefore, no white dwarf can be heavier than the limiting mass M limit , or 1. For a more accurate computation of the mass-radius relationship and limiting mass of a white dwarf, one must compute the equation of state which describes the relationship between density and pressure in the white dwarf material.

If the density and pressure are both set equal to functions of the radius from the center of the star, the system of equations consisting of the hydrostatic equation together with the equation of state can then be solved to find the structure of the white dwarf at equilibrium. In the non-relativistic case, we will still find that the radius is inversely proportional to the cube root of the mass. This is the limiting value of the mass—called the Chandrasekhar limit —at which the white dwarf can no longer be supported by electron degeneracy pressure. The graph on the right shows the result of such a computation.

It shows how radius varies with mass for non-relativistic blue curve and relativistic green curve models of a white dwarf. Both models treat the white dwarf as a cold Fermi gas in hydrostatic equilibrium.

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Radius is measured in standard solar radii and mass in standard solar masses. These computations all assume that the white dwarf is non-rotating. If the white dwarf is rotating, the equation of hydrostatic equilibrium must be modified to take into account the centrifugal pseudo-force arising from working in a rotating frame. If the star is allowed to rotate nonuniformly, and viscosity is neglected, then, as was pointed out by Fred Hoyle in , [52] there is no limit to the mass for which it is possible for a model white dwarf to be in static equilibrium.

Not all of these model stars will be dynamically stable. The degenerate matter that makes up the bulk of a white dwarf has a very low opacity , because any absorption of a photon requires that an electron must transition to a higher empty state, which may not be possible as the energy of the photon may not be a match for the possible quantum states available to that electron, hence radiative heat transfer within a white dwarf is low; it does, however, have a high thermal conductivity. This matter radiates roughly as a black body.

The visible radiation emitted by white dwarfs varies over a wide color range, from the blue-white color of an O-type main sequence star to the red of an M-type red dwarf. This enables the composition and structure of their atmospheres to be studied by soft X-ray and extreme ultraviolet observations. White dwarfs also radiate neutrinos through the Urca process. As was explained by Leon Mestel in , unless the white dwarf accretes matter from a companion star or other source, its radiation comes from its stored heat, which is not replenished.

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White dwarfs have an extremely small surface area to radiate this heat from, so they cool gradually, remaining hot for a long time. Since the white dwarf has no energy sink other than radiation, it follows that its cooling slows with time.


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  4. The rate of cooling has been estimated for a carbon white dwarf of 0. After initially taking approximately 1. Once we adjust for the selection effect that hotter, more luminous white dwarfs are easier to observe, we do find that decreasing the temperature range examined results in finding more white dwarfs. No black dwarfs are thought to exist yet. Although white dwarf material is initially plasma —a fluid composed of nuclei and electrons —it was theoretically predicted in the s that at a late stage of cooling, it should crystallize , starting at its center.

    As a result of their hydrogen-rich envelopes, residual hydrogen burning via the CNO cycle may keep these white dwarfs hot on a long timescale. In addition, they remain in a bloated proto-white dwarf stage for up to 2 Gyr before they reach the cooling track. Although most white dwarfs are thought to be composed of carbon and oxygen, spectroscopy typically shows that their emitted light comes from an atmosphere which is observed to be either hydrogen or helium dominated. The dominant element is usually at least 1, times more abundant than all other elements.

    As explained by Schatzman in the s, the high surface gravity is thought to cause this purity by gravitationally separating the atmosphere so that heavy elements are below and the lighter above. Although thin, these outer layers determine the thermal evolution of the white dwarf. The degenerate electrons in the bulk of a white dwarf conduct heat well. The white dwarf is kept from cooling very quickly only by its outer layers' opacity to radiation.

    The first attempt to classify white dwarf spectra appears to have been by G. Kuiper in , [55] [80] and various classification schemes have been proposed and used since then. Sion , Jesse L. Greenstein and their coauthors in and has been subsequently revised several times. For example:. The symbols? White dwarfs whose primary spectral classification is DA have hydrogen-dominated atmospheres. Assuming that carbon and metals are not present, which spectral classification is seen depends on the effective temperature. Between approximately , K to 45, K, the spectrum will be classified DO, dominated by singly ionized helium.

    Molecular hydrogen H 2 has been detected in spectra of the atmospheres of some white dwarfs. For example, a study of the white dwarf Ton concluded that its metal abundances were consistent with those of a differentiated, rocky planet whose mantle had been eroded by the host star's wind during its asymptotic giant branch phase. Magnetic fields in white dwarfs with a strength at the surface of c.

    Blackett in as a consequence of a physical law he had proposed which stated that an uncharged, rotating body should generate a magnetic field proportional to its angular momentum. Thus the basic identification process also sometimes results in discovery of magnetic fields. The highly magnetized white dwarf in the binary system AR Scorpii was identified in as the first pulsar in which the compact object is a white dwarf instead of a neutron star. The magnetic fields in a white dwarf may allow for the existence of a new type of chemical bond , perpendicular paramagnetic bonding , in addition to ionic and covalent bonds , resulting in what has been initially described as "magnetized matter" in research published in Early calculations suggested that there might be white dwarfs whose luminosity varied with a period of around 10 seconds, but searches in the s failed to observe this.

    They may be called pre-white dwarfs.

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    Observation of these variations gives asteroseismological evidence about the interiors of white dwarfs. White dwarfs are thought to represent the end point of stellar evolution for main-sequence stars with masses from about 0. Current galactic models suggest the Milky Way galaxy currently contains about ten billion white dwarfs.

    If the mass of a main-sequence star is lower than approximately half a solar mass , it will never become hot enough to fuse helium in its core. It is thought that, over a lifespan that considerably exceeds the age of the Universe c. Rather, they are thought to be the product of mass loss in binary systems [5] [7] [8] [] [] [] or mass loss due to a large planetary companion. If the mass of a main-sequence star is between 0.